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On this day in Lewis & Clark history...

The Captains treat Bratton's back with a liniment of camphor, alcohol, soap made from olive oil and sodium hydroxide, and laudanum (opium and alcohol). The Captains describe several species of birds, and the smokers run out of tobacco.

The wind was so high that Comowol did not leave us untill late this evening.
Bratton is much wose today, he complains of a violent pain in the small of his back and is unablen consequence to set up.

Meriwether Lewis

Netul Landing at Fort Clatsop

Rainy coastal river with muddy banks at low tide

Photo taken with permission at Lewis and Clark National Historic Park, Fort Clatsop.

there are four speceis of larus or gull on this coast and river, 1st a small speceis about the size of a pigeon; white except some black spots about the head and a little brown on the but of the wings

Meriwether Lewis

Immature bonaparte's gull, Larus philadelphia

Gray gull with white head floating in the water

Photo ©2009 Basar. Permission via the GNU Free Documentation License.

2nd a speceis somewhat larger of a light brown colour with a whitish or mealy coloured back.

Meriwether Lewis

Glaucous-winged gull, Larus glaucescens

Gray gull laying in the green grass at the beach

3rd the large grey gull, or white larus with a greyish brown back and a light grey belley and breast, about the size of a well grown pullet or reather larger.
the wings are remarkably long in proportion to the size of the body and it's under chap towards the extremity is more gibbous and protuberant than in either of the other speceis.

Meriwether Lewis

Immature western gull, Larus occidentalis

Gray gull standing on the sandy beach

Photo ©2007 Jina Lee. Permission via the GNU Free Documentation License.

the large grey gull is found on the river as high as the entrance of the Kooskooske and in common with other speceis on the coast; the others appear to be confined to tidewater

Meriwether Lewis

Western gull, Larus occidentalis

Gull with white head and front and gray wings eating a crab at the beach

Photo © Mbz1. Permission via the GNU Free Documentation License.

4th a white gull about the size of the second with a remarkable beak;
adjoining the head and at the base of the uper Chap there is an elivated orning of the same substance with the beak which forms the nostrils;
it is some what in this form.

Meriwether Lewis

Northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis

Two birds with with heads and fronts and gray feathers and tails

Photo ©2006 T. M?ller. Permission via the Creative Commons 2.5 License.

The cormorant is a large black duck which feeds on fish; I perceive no difference between it and those found in the Potomac and other rivers on the Atlantic Coast.
tho' I do not recollect seeing those on the atlantic so high up the rivers as those are found here.
we first met with them on the Kooskooske at the entrance of Chopunnish river.
they increased in quantity as we decended, and formed much the greatest portion of the waterfowl which we saw on the Columbia untill we reached tidewater where they also abound but do not bear a similar proportion to the other fowls found in this quarter.—

Meriwether Lewis

Black cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

Large bird with black body and feathers

Photo ©2009 Andreas Trepte. Permission via the Creative Commons 2.5 License.

There are two speceis of loons.
1st the Speckled loon found on every part of the rivers of this country.
they are the same size colours and form with those of the Atlantic coast.

Meriwether Lewis

Arctic loon, Gavia arctica

Arctic Loon: black body, white stripes and dots, and a very long neck

Photo by Robert Bergman of the the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

There are two species of loons.
the second speceis we first met with at the great falls of the Columbia and from thence down.
this bird is not more than half the size of the speckled loon, it's neck is long, slender and white in front.
the Colour of the body and back of the neck and head are of a dun or ash colour, the breast and belley are white.
the beak is like that of the speckled loon and like them it cannot fly but flutters along on the top of the warter or dives for security when pursued.—

Meriwether Lewis

Western grebe, Aechmophorus occidentalis

Arctic Loon: mottled gray body, red eye, and long black and white neck

Photo ©2006 Deadcode. Permission via the GNU Free Documentation License.