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On this day in Lewis & Clark history...

For 15 men retrieving hunted elk, today is a "hard and disagreeable" day in the Fort Clatsop area. The salt has run out and the elk are "poor." The Captains describe how the root of the Western bracken fern is prepared and eaten.

From the journals...

There are three species of fern in this neighbourhood the root one of which the natves eat
the top is annual and is of course dead at present.—

William Clark

Western bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum

Dying fern with delicate branches

The Wappetoe, or bulb of the Sagitifolia or common arrow head, which grows in great abundance in the marshey grounds of that butifull and fertile vally on the Columbia commenceing just above the quick Sand River and extending downwards for about 70 miles. this bulb forms a principal article of trafic between the inhabitents of the vally and those of their neighbourhood or Sea coast.

William Clark

Wapato plant, Sagittaria sagittifolia

Round bulbs that appear similar in size and shape to a medium-sized onion