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January 9, 1804

While at their winter camp at Wood River, Illinois, Clark explores the country to the south reaching the Cahokia Mounds built between 900 and 1300. He falls through the ice while crossing a pond and nearly suffers frostbite.

went across a Prary to a 2nd Bank where I discovered an Indian Fortification,
this fortress is 9 mouns forming a Circle    two of them is about 7 foot above the leavel of the plain on the edge of the first bank and 2 m from the woods & about the Same distance from the main high land, about this place I found great quantities of Earthen ware & flints— about ½ m. N. is a Grave on an Emeninc

William Clark
Large mound or small hill covered in snow

January 9, 1805

Several Mandan Indians and two Expedition men suffer from the cold while out hunting bison. One Indian boy is missing and Ordway expects the missing Expedition hunter will freeze to death during the night.

2 of our party went out a hunting this morning; they got parted from each other & one of them returned in the evening. had Suffered considerable with the cold. we expected nothing else but the other man had froze or would freeze this night.

John Ordway
Historical painting of plains Indians wearing snowshoes and hunting buffalo

January 9, 1806

As Clark's party hauls blubber and oil over steep Tillamook Head, he is surprised how much weight a local Indian women is carrying. Lewis describes Chinook canoe burials and local commerce with trading ships.

the Weather cleared off this morning & became warm & pleasant.

Joseph Whitehouse
Fort Clatsop on a sunny day